The analysis of birch pollen season in selected cities of Poland in 2021 Original article


Joanna Rapiejko
Małgorzata Puc
Małgorzata Malkiewicz
Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko
Monika Ziemianin
Grzegorz Siergiejko
Katarzyna Dąbrowska-Zapart
Dariusz Jurkiewicz
Agnieszka Lipiec


The study aims to monitor the birch pollen season in selected Polish cities: Bialystok, Bydgoszcz, Cracow, Lublin, Olsztyn, Opole, Sosnowiec, Szczecin, Warsaw, Wroclaw and Zielona Gora in 2021. Pollen concentrations were recorded using a Burkard type sampler operating in a continuous volumetric mode. The birch pollen season of 2021 started during the first and second decade of April. In south-western Poland it began about 10 days earlier (April 7th or 10th) than in north-eastern regions (April 18th or 19th). The average length of the season was 31 days. The highest daily concentrations and annual pollen grains sum (seasonal pollen integral) were the most variable season characteristics. The maximum concentrations of birch pollen were recorded between April 21st (in Wroclaw) and May 1st (in Sosnowiec and Warsaw). It ranged from 222 p/m3 in Cracow up to 1997 p/m3 in Wroclaw. SPI was the lowest in Cracow (1573) and Sosnowiec (1763) and the highest in Bydgoszcz (5474) and Wroclaw (5072). The longest exposure to high concentrations of birch pollen, lasting 16–18 days, was detected in Szczecin, Olsztyn and Bydgoszcz. The abundance of birch pollen in Poland in 2021 was not as high as in 2019 and 2020, which, combined with the protective effect of mouth and nose masks due to COVID-19 pandemic, may have resulted in less severe allergy symptoms in sensitized individuals than in previous years.


Dane pobrania nie są jeszcze dostepne


Jak cytować
Rapiejko, J., Puc, M., Malkiewicz, M., Piotrowska-Weryszko, K., Ziemianin, M., Siergiejko, G., Dąbrowska-Zapart, K., Jurkiewicz, D., & Lipiec, A. (2022). The analysis of birch pollen season in selected cities of Poland in 2021. Alergoprofil, 18(1), 29-34.


1. Beck P, Caudullo G, de Rigo D et al. Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and other birches in Europe: distributions, habitat, usage and threates. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J, de Rigo D, Caudullo G (ed) et al. European Atlas Forest Tree Speies. Publ Off EU., Luxembourg 2016: e010226+.
2. Zając A, Zając M (ed). Distribution Atlas of Vascular Plant of Poland. Pracownia Chorologii Komputerowej, Instytut Botaniki UJ, Kraków 2001.
3. Kubik-Komar A, Piotrowska-Weryszko K, Weryszko-Chmielewska E et al. A study on the spatial and temporal variability in airborne Betula pollen concentration in five cities in Poland using multivariate analyses. Sci Total Environ. 2019; 660: 1070-8.
4. Weryszko-Chmielewska E (ed). Aerobiologia. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie, Lublin 2007.
5. Biedermann T, Winther L, Till SJ et al. Pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy. 2019; 74: 1237-48.
6. Samoliński B, Sybilski A, Raciborski F et al. Prevalence of rhinitis in Polish population according to the ECAP (Epidemiology of Allergic Disorders in Poland) study. Otolaryngol Pol. 2009; 63(4): 324-30.
7. Samoliński B, Raciborski F, Lipiec A et al. Epidemiologia chorób alergicznych w Polsce (ECAP). Pol J Allergol. 2014; 1: 10-8.
8. Matricardi PM, Kleine-Tebbe J, Hoffmann HJ et al. Molecular Allergology. User’s Guide. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2016.
9. Werfel T, Asero R, Ballmer-Weber BK et al. Position paper of the EAACI: food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens. Allergy. 2015; 70: 1079-90.
10. Mandrioli P, Comtois P, Dominguez Vilches E et al. Sampling: Principles and Techniques. In: Mandrioli P, Comtois P, Levizzani V (ed). Methods in Aerobiology. Bologna, Pitagora Editrice 1998: 47-112.
11. Emberlin J, Savage M, Jones S. Annual variations in grass pollen seasons in London 1961-1990: trends and forecast models. Clin Exp Allergy. 1993; 23(11): 911-8.
12. Galan C, Artaitti A, Bonnini M et al. Recommended terminology for aerobiological studies. Aerobiologia. 2017; 33: 293-5.
13. Rapiejko P, Stankiewicz W, Szczygielski K et al. Threshold pollen count necessary to evoke allergic symptoms. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007; 61(4): 591-4.
14. Ziemianin M, Myszkowska D, Puc M et al. Analysis of the birch pollen seasons in the selected Polish cities in 2020. Alergoprofil. 2020; 16(3): 26-32.
15. Piotrowska-Weryszko K Weryszko-Chmielewska E, Dmitruk M et al. The analysis of Betula pollen season in Poland in 2019. Alergoprofil. 2019; 15(3): 10-5.
16. Malkiewicz M, Lipiec A, Dąbrowska-Zapart K et al. Birch pollen season in southern Poland in 2017. Alergoprofil. 2017; 13(3): 118-23.
17. Lipiec A, Puc M, Siergiejko G et al. The analysis of birch pollen season in northern Poland in 2017. Alergoprofil. 2017; 13(4): 149-53.
18. Weryszko-Chmielewska E, Piotrowska-Weryszko K, Haratym W et al. Betula pollen season in southern Poland in 2016. Alergoprofil. 2016; 12(2): 96-100.
19. Puc M, Wolski T, Câmara Camacho I et al. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L.) pollen seasons in Poland. Acta Agrobot. 2015, 68(4): 303-13.