Supplementation in diet of patients with retinal diseases Experts ’ position paper

Main Article Content

Anna Święch
Sławomir Teper
Maciej Gawęcki
Anna Nowińska
Małgorzata Figurska
Joanna Adamiec-Mroczek
Izabella Karska-Basta
Jan Kucharczuk


Etiology of retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy is multifactorial, where oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role. Therefore supplementation of diet in that group of patients with proper product, which contains substances with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties is advised for reducing the risk of progression of such diseases.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Święch A, Teper S, Gawęcki M, Nowińska A, Figurska M, Adamiec-Mroczek J, Karska-Basta I, Kucharczuk J. Supplementation in diet of patients with retinal diseases. Ophthatherapy [Internet]. 2024Mar.31 [cited 2024Jul.18];11(1):14-3. Available from:
Conservative treatment


1. Kauppinen A, Paterno JJ, Blasiak J et al. Inflammation and Its Role in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73: 1765-86.
2. Klein R, Klein BEK, Tomany SC et al. Ten-Year Incidence of Age-Related Maculopathy and Smoking and Drinking: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156: 589-98.
3. Seddon JM, Rosner B, Sperduto RD et al. Dietary Fat and Risk for Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119; 1191-9.
4. Seddon JM, George S, Rosner B. Cigarette Smoking, Fish Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake, and Associations with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006; 124: 995-1001.
5. Millen AE, Meyers KJ, Liu Z et al. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015; 133(10): 1171-9.
6. Renzi LM, Hammond BR, Dengler M et al. The Relation between Serum Lipids and Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Serum and Retina: Results from Cross-Sectional, Case-Control and Case Study Designs. Lipids Health Dis. 2012; 11: 33.
7. An Update on Vitamin D and Human Immunity – Hewison – 2012 – Clinical Endocrinology – Wiley Online Library .
8. Li B, George EW, Rognon GT et al. Imaging Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Human Retina with Confocal Resonance Raman Microscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2020; 117: 12352-8.
9. Junghans A, Sies H, Stahl W. Macular Pigments Lutein and Zeaxanthin as Blue Light Filters Studied in Liposomes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001; 391; 160-4.
10. Bian Q, Gao S, Zhou J et al. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation Reduces Photooxidative Damage and Modulates the Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012; 53: 1298-307.
11. Fung FKC, Law BYK, Lo ACY. Lutein Attenuates Both Apoptosis and Autophagy upon Cobalt (II) Chloride-Induced Hypoxia in Rat Műller Cells. PLOS ONE 2016; 11: e0167828.
12. Humphries JM, Khachik F. Distribution of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Related Geometrical Isomers in Fruit, Vegetables, Wheat, and Pasta Products. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 1322-7.
13. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group; Chew EY, Clemons TE, Sangiovanni JP et al. Secondary Analyses of the Effects of Lutein/Zeaxanthin on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression: AREDS2 Report No. 3. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014; 132: 142-9.
14. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group; Chew EY, SanGiovanni JP, Ferris FL et al. Lutein/Zeaxanthin for the Treatment of Age-Related Cataract: AREDS2 Randomized Trial Report No. 4. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013; 131: 843-50.
15. Chew EY, Clemons TE, SanGiovanni JP. et al. Lutein + Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2013; 309: 2005-15.
16. Gopinath B, Flood VM, Rochtchina E et al. Homocysteine, Folate, Vitamin B-12, and 10-y Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration123. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98: 129-35.
17. Awh CC, Hawken S, Zanke BW. Treatment Response to Antioxidants and Zinc Based on CFH and ARMS2 Genetic Risk Allele Number in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2015; 122: 162-9.
18. Dharamdasani Detaram H, Mitchell P, Russell J et al. Dietary Zinc Intake Is Associated with Macular Fluid in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2020; 48: 61-8.
19. Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E et al. Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C and E, β-Carotene, and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration: AREDS Report No. 35. Ophthalmology. 2013; 120: 1604-11.e4.
20. Datseris I, Bouratzis N, Kotronis C et al. One-Year Outcomes of Resveratrol Supplement with Aflibercept versus Aflibercept Monotherapy in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Int J Ophthalmol. 2023; 16: 1496-502.
21. Lançon A, Frazzi R, Latruffe N. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases. Molecules. 2016; 21: 304.
22. Pop R, Daescu A, Rugina D et al. Resveratrol: Its Path from Isolation to Therapeutic Action in Eye Diseases. Antioxidants. 2022; 11: 2447.
23. García-Layana A, Recalde S, Hernandez M et al. A Randomized Study of Nutritional Supplementation in Patients with Unilateral Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4): 1253.
24. Souied EH, Delcourt C, Querques G et al. Oral Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Prevention of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Nutritional AMD Treatment 2 Study. Ophthalmology. 2013; 120: 1619-31.
25. Alfonso-Muñoz EA, Burggraaf-Sánchez de las Matas R, Mataix Boronat J et al. Role of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in the Current Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22: 4020.
26. Chew EY, Klein ML, Clemons TE et al. No Clinically Significant Association between CFH and ARMS2 Genotypes and Response to Nutritional Supplements. Ophthalmology. 2014; 121: 2173-180.
27. Kustra R, Awh CC, Rojas-Fernandez C et al. CFH and ARMS2 Polymorphisms Interact with Zinc Supplements in Cognitive Impairment in the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 66: 707-15.
28. Neelam K, Goenadi CJ, Lun K et al. Putative Protective Role of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Diabetic Retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017; 101: 551-8.
29. McNulty H, Strain JJ, Hughes CF et al. Riboflavin, MTHFR Genotype and Blood Pressure: A Personalized Approach to Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension. Mol Aspects Med. 2017; 53: 2-9.
30. Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Eysink PED et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia Is Associated With the Presence of Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Hoorn Study. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160: 2984-90.
31. Kowluru RA, Mohammad G, Sahajpal N. Faulty Homocysteine Recycling in Diabetic Retinopathy. Eye Vis. 2020; 7: 4.
32. Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY et al. Folic Acid, Pyridoxine, and Cyanocobalamin Combination Treatment and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Women: The Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009; 169: 335-41.
33. Borel P. Genetic Variations Involved in Interindividual Variability in Carotenoid Status. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012; 56: 228-40.