Perforated Punctal Plugs for the Management of Acquired External Punctal Stenosis Original research study

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Alan Chamernik
Katarzyna Różycka
Krystian Bakalarski
Radosław Różycki


The study presents the results of treating patients with pathological tearing caused by acquired external punctal stenosis.

Method: 61 eyes of 34 individuals with an average age of 67 were enrolled in the study. A perforated silicone implants were inserted into the narrowed lacrimal punctums, after pathological tearing had been diagnosed using the Munk test, fluorescein disappearance test, and other parameters. Implants has been removed after 3 months.

Results: Overall, a statistically significant (p < 0.001%) reduction in the fluorescein disappearance test was observed in 93.2% of eyes (n = 55). None of the patients experienced an exacerbation of excessive tearing. The average score on the fluorescein disappearance test decreased from 3.64 before the procedure to 1.42 after the procedure.

Conclusions: Intubation of the lacrimal punctum with perforated silicone implants is a quick, effective, and safe method for treating pathological tearing in cases of acquired narrowing of the lacrimal punctum.


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Chamernik A, Różycka K, Bakalarski K, Różycki R. Perforated Punctal Plugs for the Management of Acquired External Punctal Stenosis. Ophthatherapy [Internet]. 2023May31 [cited 2024Jun.20];10(2):117-25. Available from:
Surgery and laser therapy


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