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Despite improvements in neonatal care, retinopathy of prematurity is still leading cause of blindness in the world. The most treatment problems pose stage 4 and 5 of this disease. Performing vitrectomy in stage 5 is a subject of controversy among ophthalmologists due to unsatisfactory functional results after the surgery. Therefore, our aim was to present the results of 1000 vitrectomies performed by the author in years 1994–2019 in 1018 eyes of 692 children with stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity. In these children lens sparing vitrectomies and lensectomy-vitrectomy with limbal approach were performed. The results were compared with visual function of 127 untreated children with stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity. Visual acuity of treated patients ranged from 0.05 to no light perception in stage 5 and from no light perception to finger counting in the untreated group. Comparing the functional results of treated and untreated patients, it can be concluded that vitrectomy gives a better chance of gaining useful vision.
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