Current and novel strategies for the treatment for active thyroid orbitopathy Review article

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Joanna Wierzbowska


Graves’ ophthalmopathy is a consequence of an autoimmune orbital reaction that is caused by an antigen or antigens that are common to the thyroid and orbit. This review discusses the pathogenesis of thyroid orbitopathy, current treatment strategies, and new treatment options for both hyperthyroidism and the active phase of ophthalmopathy. The traditional strategy for treating Graves’ ophtalmopathy involves immunosuppressive therapy with steroids, orbital radiation therapy, and surgical decompression. New treatment options include the use of drugs that modulate specific cellular proteins that are involved in orbital autoimmune pathways. These include monoclonal antibodies, cytokine inhibitors, and selective immunosuppressants.

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Wierzbowska J. Current and novel strategies for the treatment for active thyroid orbitopathy. Ophthatherapy [Internet]. 2020Jun.30 [cited 2020Oct.21];7(2):108-15. Available from:
Conservative treatment


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